Foundation:

IT Definition as stated by ACET Committee

Instructional Technology is “the study and ethical practices of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using, and managing appropriate technological processes and resources.”  (Dempsey & Reiser, 2018, p. 15)


My Personal Education Philosophy & The Role of Technology

Instructional technology is the the study and ethical practices of  the

  • Design of learning environments that enhance and improve learning performance 

  • Evaluating appropriate technology, technological processes, emerging technologies, and other forms of educational materials that engage the learner in critical thinking.

  • Learners should engage in the evaluation of internet learning content and have opportunities to create a co-learning experience with other learners.

Reflection on Learning 

Through this whole learning process, and after completing all the projects, it became evident how technology and the learning theories complement each other and how I can better implement them while designing courses. 

IT Timeline 

IT Scholars and Their Contributions

Burrhus Frederic (B.F.) Skinner: Developed the theory of Operant Conditioning and Program of instruction. Operant Conditioning consists of instating a system of rewards and punishment to create learning. A learner will then makes an association between a behavior and a consequence and adjust their behavior accordingly. Similarly, Program Instruction uses a system of positive and negative reinforcement to promote learning. This system delivers instruction in a self-paced and self-administer manner through the use of a "teaching machine." The teaching is delivered in small, incremental steps, while giving the students immediate feedback, including reinforcements, and rewards.  

 Skinner's programmed instruction educational model consists of five principles:

  1. Learners should be active: Learners are asked questions to verify the learning 

  2. Have immediate feedback: As soon as the learners received the answer, they move to the next question. 

  3. Gradual steps: The information is display in small chunks and learners should feel that they are making progress and encourage 

  4. Self-pace: Each learner will complete a lesson on their own paced. 

  5. Leaner verification: Checks if learning has occurred, and leaners provide feedback on the learning, and then the program is modified accordingly. 

Robert Gagne: Develop the theory of Conditions of Learning which outlines five different steps that must be present to create a successful learning environment.​ This theory also acknowledges that learning builds from prior knowledge.

  1. Intellectual skills

  2. cognitive strategies

  3. Verbal information

  4. Motor skills

  5. Attitudes 

 

Gagne outlined nine instructional events and corresponding cognitive processes.

  1. gaining attention (reception)

  2. Informing learners of the objective (expectancy)

  3. Stimulating recall of prior learning (retrieval)

  4. Presenting the stimulus (Selective perception)

  5. Providing learning guidance (semantic encoding)

  6. Eliciting performance (responding)

  7. Providing feedback (reinforcement)

  8. Assessing performance (retrieval)

  9. Enhancing retention and transfer (generalization). The combination of all these events are meant to provide the best setting for learning.  (Reinser & Dempsey)  

Benjamin Bloom: Devised a taxonomy to measure Educational Objectives by classifying them into different cognitive domains. These domains are Knowledge, Comprehension, Application, Analysis, Synthesis, and Evaluation. Each section has a set of verbs that are intended to measure each of the domains and is known as Bloom’s Taxonomy.

Lev Vygotsky, Jerome Brunner, and John Dewey: They develop the ideas that lead to Constructivism that has two basic concepts:

  1. The learner must be cognitive that the learning is happening, and the learner must actively build and participate in creating new knowledge.

  2. The learning happens when the students are constructing their own knowledge from their own previous experience and current experiences that can be applied to a real-world context.

Students learn better by trying to make sense of a problem on their own, testing their solutions/results, and having the teacher as a guide. Similarly, Brunner created the learning theory known as the Discovery of Learning. Bruner states that one must Scaffold the learning, emphasizes that students learn by doing, and that tailored support must be provided to the students throughout their learning process. Ultimately learners learn best through inquiry-based instruction. 

Learning Theories and Key Contributors

Behaviorism:

In Behaviorism, there is an emphasis on behavior. If the behavior of a learner has not changed, then learning has not occurred. Therefore, learning is evaluated in a change of observable behavior in the learner, and there is no consideration of the learners' internal mental state. The learner's mind is a black box. While delivering a lesson, the teacher acts as a sage on the stage.

Cognitivism:

Cognitivism argues that learning is an internal process that occurs in a learner's mind. The learners' mind, the "black box," is where the learning occurs, and the information is processed (like a computer.) Students are view as rational beings and active participants in the learning process. In cognitivism, learning has happened if there is a change in the learners' mental schemata. While delivering a lesson, the teacher acts as a sage on the stage. 

Constructivism 

In Constructivism, the learners are actively involved in the construction of their own knowledge. The knowledge constructed from the leaners, environment, experiences, prior knowledge, and from the collaboration with other students who also have their own environment, experiences, and prior knowledge. As a result, mental representations of knowledge are subjective. Learning occurs when the learner builds knowledge through hands-on learning. While delivering a lesson, the teacher acts as a guide on the side. 

References:

Dempsey, J. V., & Reiser, R. A. (2018). Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and                                 Technology. New York, NY: Pearson Education, Inc.

Conclusion

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