Design and Development I & II:

 There are a variety of learning models that complement the learning theories. This combination is invaluable in the design of effective and successful course curriculum and training materials. The learning models are instrumental in the instructional design process. They help manage timelines, training requirements, expectations, budget, design, development, implementation, and ultimately help gauge the success of the program.  

In this area, we will cover the learning theories and projects Developed for the Design and Development of Instructional Materials I  & II ETEC 544 and ETEC 644.

The ADDIE design Model 

  • A systematic process that helps the design of any process regardless of the instructional method

  • It is a time-consuming process since one only moves on until the previous step is completed. 

  • Rapid Prototyping aims to follow the ADDIE model, but it allows for continual formative feedback during all phases of the process.

 

Phases of ADDIE

  1. Analysis: Do a gap analysis and answer the who, what, where, when, and how

  2. Design: Design the strategy, delivery methods, structure, duration, assessment, and feedback 

  3. Develop: Create the course materials according to the design decision made during the Design Phase.

  4. Implement: The learners go through a completed course training 

  5. Evaluate: Assess the course design, get student feedback, and improve and revise the content as needed. 

Dick, Carey and Carey

Picture From: Dick, Carey and Carey

Dick, Carey and Carey Model of Design

  • A systematic process for creating instruction 

  • Breaks instruction into small components that are easy to understand

  • It targets the skills, knowledge, and abilities of the learners

  • the focus is to provide the necessary conditions and tools needed for the learning to occur  

  • There are nine components

Dick, Carey and Carey Model Steps 

  1.  Identify the Goals: Needs assessment 

  2. Conduct Analysis: Learners' entry behaviors (Skill Knowledge and attitudes)

  3. Analyze learners and Context: Prior skills, preferences, and attitudes which decide the instructional strategy

  4. Write Performance objectives: Writing of the Learning Objectives

  5. Developed assessment Instruments: Measure leaners' Progress

  6.  Develop an instructional strategy: 

    1. Pre-Instructional activities 

    2. Presentation of information 

    3. Practice and feedback 

    4. Testing and follow-through 

  7. Develop and select instructional materials

  8. Design and conduct Formative evaluations

    1. One to one 

    2. Small group 

    3. Field

  9. Revise instruction

  10. Design and conduct Summative Evaluations

Keller's Arcs Model of motivational Design

  • Looks at what motivates the learners'

  • The goal is to easily apply motivation to instruction

Arcs Model Steps:

  1. Attention: Get a hold of the learners' interest and attention. Provide real-world examples, humor, and other attention-getting techniques.

  2. Relevance: Is the content relevant and useful for the students. Does the content have a perceived worth and future usefulness for the students?  

  3. Confidence: Developed Sucess expectations for the learners. Learners control their learning and progress in the course. The facilitator provides opportunities for self-growth and feedback 

  4. Satisfaction: Learners' should be satisfied with what they have achieved and learned. Students should receive praise and rewards. Maintain consistent standards for success 

Kellers ARCS Model

Picture From: Purdue University Keller's ARCS model

Merrill's First Principles of Instruction

Merrill's First Principles of Instruction

  • Instruction must include demonstration, application, and be problem center

  • Motivation comes from leaning, and students want to be able to do a task they could not do before. 

 

Learning can be best achieved by:

  1. Problem-Center: Learner engages in real-world problem

  2. Activation: Create activities and provide information that builds on existing knowledge

  3. Demonstration: Create activities that demonstrate to the leaner the steps and procedures they are required to learn

  4. Application: Give the learners the opportunity to apply what they learn

  5. Integration: Create activities that help the learner connect and apply what they have learned to their work and lives. 

Conclusion

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